About the Santa Fe Historical Society


(Originally published in the 1997 West Texas Historical Association Year Book.)

Railroad branches are often remnants of grand schemes. The Burlington System's line between Stamford and Spur was the incomplete embodiment of the empirical plans of two major railroads. The complex give and take of railroad stategy stymied the plans for a railroad line connecting Abilene with the Llano Estacado via Dickens County, but repeated attempts to build the line spurred Railroad construction on the Abilene-Haskell Plains, the South Plains, the Quitaque area, and may have influenced construction in the Concho and San Saba valleys.

During the summer and fall of 1904, Santa Fe surveyor J. V. Key examined a route that would connect the railroad's line across the Panhandle with Santa Fe lines in south Texas. This route ran from Texico to Plainview and Floydada, descended the Caprock Escarpment near Dickens, then passed through the future locations of Spur and Hamlin to reach Anson and Abilene, and eventually connected with the Gulf, Colorado and Santa Fe Railway at Brownwood. Of all the lines the Santa Fe had under consideration at that time, the Texico-Brownwood route seemed the most promising. >1<

No other railroad served the area except for the east-west line of the Texas and Pacific Railroad at Abilene. The next nearest line was the Texas Central Railroad, which had meandered into Stamford from Waco in 1900. The Wichita Valley Railway, which had connected Wichita Falls and Seymour since 1890, was hardly in the picture at all. >2<

Santa Fe activity on the Abilene-Haskell Plains caught the eye of the powerful firm of S. M. Swenson and Sons. The firm wrote to the railroad citing poor land and tough river crossings along the proposed route in Stonewall County. The Swensons suggested an alternative utilizing Haskell County's better land and easy river crossing before proceeding southward to Abilene. The Swensons owned property along this route and boasted to the railroad of existing and projected improvements. >3<

The railroad's F. W. Mudge made the examination, passing from Dickens to Haskell, Stamford, and Anson. He was not impressed, saying that it would be an expensive line to build. It also went too far east before turning south, making a long deviation in the through route. Mudge, however, had a hunch that the Santa Fe might be interested in purchasing the Texas Central. He suggested that a direct line was possible between Stamford and southern Stonewall County. >4<

The Santa Fe did take an interest in the TC and despatched C. F. W. Felt to examine the company. Early studies revealed that the line was in good shape and was earning reasonably well. However, grades were heavier than the Santa Fe wanted for a main line and they would be expensive to reduce. As for local business, the "rough, rocky, and poor" land, it was thought, would never be greatly productive. Still the Santa Fe continued to mull alternatives. >5<

In the spring of 1905, F. Meredith Jones made a reconnaissance from Dickens to the end of a Santa Fe branch at Weatherford. Jones reported that the line would be cheaper to build than the Abilene line and that it would provide a short connection from Dallas and Fort Worth to the Llano Estacado. However, the route to the Gulf would be longer than via Abilene. Also, the Abilene line passed through better land and served more existing population. >6<

The Santa Fe obtained a charter for the Abilene route on September 15 under the name "Gulf, Santa Fe and Northwestern Railway." This company was absorbed March 14, 1906, by the Pecos and Northern Texas Railway, the Santa Fe's principal affiliate in the area. By then preparations for construction were well underway, including acquisition of right of way. Then interference came from an unexpected quarter. >7<

The northern part of the Abilene-Haskell Plains was tributary to the Wichita Valley Railway. By July of 1905, officials of that company became concerned about "outside parties" moving into the Stamford area and began preparing to build a WV extension. The WV, along with the Fort Worth and Denver City Railway, was controled by the Denver-based Colorado and Southern Railway, although separately operated. >8<

Frank Trumbull, Grenville Dodge, Morgan Jones, and others financed the project until the C&S could raise funds and step in. To allow separate financing, the extension was chartered as the Wichita Valley Railroad and construction south of Seymour began in November. >9<

Although C&S plans did not call for track beyond Stamford, W. G. Swenson and Ed Hughes made an agreement to construct a separate railroad between Stamford and Abilene that the WV would operate. This led to the February 8, 1906, charter of the Abilene and Northern Railway and the entire Wichita Falls-Abilene line was completed on January 1, 1907. >10<

The C&S had taken control of the WV Railroad and of the A&N, and on October 12, 1908, consolidated all WV lines under the Wichita Valley name. Two months later, on December 19, the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad purchased the C&S, but semi-independant operations continued. >11<

The extension of the Wichita Valley lines caused some rethinking in Santa Fe circles. Harry McGee was set to examining a line that ran southwards from Dickens through "Robey" and Merkle. The principal problem with McGee's line was that it missed Abilene, which was considered "too good a town to leave out." Work continued on the Abilene line even though the two railroads would run side by side south of Anson. >12<

Despite the Santa Fe's deturmination to reach Abilene, the citizens of that town refused to sign standard right of way contracts. Among the guarantees and provisoes they were demanding was a specific date for completion of the railroad. Santa Fe president Edward P. Ripley did not wish to be committed to any dates. Also, Ripley wanted to purchase the Texas Central. Privately, he explained that his legal experts had said "that if we should first build from Brownwood to Abilene we could not subsequently acquire the Texas Central, whereas if we take the Texas Central first we could later build the Brownwood line....Therefore we must delay any action and avoid committing ourselves in any way until after the Texas Central question has been settled." Ripley laid down excuses for his people to state publicly concerning why "it has been thought best to abandon the project for the present....At all events all show of activity on the line Texico to Brownwood must be dropped at once except that we should secure the townsites along the whole route so far as they can be deturmined on." >13<

Publicly, work stopped in September of 1906, except for completion of track between Canyon and Plainview by the end of the year. However, a new survey was quietly made in the late fall and early winter of 1906-7 at the request of O. L. Slaton, C. W. Post, and others. It yielded an excellent route complete with a light grade on the Caprock in Garza County. However, the railroad remained committed to the route that used the pass above Dickens. >14<

Meanwhile, Colorado and Southern officials had their own plans for the pass above Dickens. In May of 1906, Trumbull and Dodge had consulted with Morgan Jones. They wanted his opinion concerning possible local business along a route across the Llano Estacado, specifically from Floyd County to Bailey County. Not only did they want a line that would serve the plains, but they also wanted it to "be useful jointly with the Santa Fe in connecting up their Texico line with their G.C.&S.F. line." As an afterthought, they wanted to know if the Texas Central would be interested in a joint line northwest of Stamford. >15<

In September, the Swensons purchased the Spur Ranch, which straddled the Santa Fe survey in Dickens County. By spring 1907, the Swensons and the C&S were partners in promoting a line northwest of Stamford. An agreement was made with Stamford residents L. M. Buie and R. V. Colvert to survey a railroad line "to, or near, Dickens" and to make preliminary arrangements for subsidies along the way. Further, if Trumbull requested, these men were to organize a local railroad company and to deliver its stock to Trumbull or his nominee. >16<

Trumbull and Swenson quickly decided to "secure" the "best stategic" pass to the plains. On June 15, Trumbull directed that the pass at Dickens be surveyed and that the right of way be acquired. He even suggested "doing some grading to hold the situation." These orders were to be conveyed to Buie "preferably orally instead of in writing." >17<

While the C&S went about its clandestine project, other area railroads were not idle. The Santa Fe examined a route between Abilene and Temple via Dublin. No particular advantage was found for this possibility. Meanwhile, the Texas Central built south and west from Stamford, terminating at Rotan in 1907. >18<

Buie's surveyor ran several lines on the Caprock. The Santa Fe's 1.25% grade was as straight as possible, but W. E. Bogart produced a 1% grade by adding length and curvature. >19<

Meanwhile, Buie visited Murdo MacKenzie, general manager of the Matador Land and Cattle Company, which owned the pass. While MacKenzie was inclined to let Buie have the right of way, he could take no action on the matter without consulting the board of directors in Scotland. However, before the Matador made a decision, Wall Street entered a slump. Trumbull ordered surveys stopped as soon as possible. >20<

By the late fall of 1908, the C&S, now owned by the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad, was ready to actively take up the project, this time openly. The entire route, virtually duplicating the Santa Fe's from southern Stonewall County to the plains, was formally surveyed and right of way was acquired. The Stamford and Northwestern Railway was chartered on January 11, 1909. Its specified route led to Plainview. >21<

Partial ownership of the S&NW was offered to the Santa Fe. Possibly trackage rights were available over the WV to Abilene and maybe beyond via the railroad that Morgan Jones was then constructing south of that place. The Santa Fe's reaction was to stockpile construction material and to station a man in the area with instructions to occupy the pass if the S&NW made a serious move towards it. >22<

Learning of this through a third party, the C&S contacted Murdo MacKenzie in hopes of getting the pass first. MacKenzie was willing to let the S&NW into the pass, but he would not allow an exclusive right to it. The C&S claimed a willingness to allow other railroads to use its tracks, but MacKenzie insisted that the Matador Ranch must hold control. Learning that the Matador managers wanted an east-west railroad across the entire ranch, the C&S offered to eventually build such a line. MacKenzie was not swayed by such promises. Frustrated, the C&S filed condemnation proceedings, but did not press them. This move was merely to establish a prior claim. >23<

The Santa Fe apparently made no serious attempt to obtain the Matador's pass, since C. W. Post's pass in Garza County was available. The Texas Central purchase and all other plans derived from the Dickens route were canceled. The only reason left for purchasing part of the S&NW was to prevent the C&S from entering the South Plains. Santa Fe chief engineer William B. Storey Jr. had a negative opinion on the subject.

"I do not believe we can stop ultimate extensions into our territory by different lines," said Storey, "and while possibly an alliance of this kind might prevent the Colorado & Southern from extending into the territory, other roads will come as soon as sufficient attractions are offered. We would thus be paying a very high price to merely head off one road. My thought is that west Texas needs development and I would prefer to take our resources and develope new parts of the territory, rather than purchase lines already built, leaving other territory open for others to enter." >24<

The Santa Fe did not participate when the S&NW began construction, but the big company did have to lay some track towards Dickens. A local man, M. C. Abernathy, had been hired to secure land near Floydada. Alarmingly, Abernathy proceeded to alienate citizens, principally W. M. Massie. Santa Fe officials attempted to make ammends, but Massie refused to meet with them. On February 4, 1909, Massie formed the Llano Estacado Railway with plans to connect Plainview and Floydada immediately, and Hereford and the S&NW later. Some construction was managed, and open rumor placed Frank Trumbull among the company's backers. The Santa Fe purchased the newcomer and ran trains between Floydada and Plainview by March of 1910. No further destinations were attained. >25<

S&NW track opened to Jayton on September 15, 1909, and on October 25 to Spur. Plans called for eventual construction to Plainview. During February, the C&S had examined two new routes northwestward from Spur. One passed through Crosbyton and the other went up Blanco Canyon and emerged onto the plains from Crawfish Canyon, near Cone. However, the S&NW did not build beyond Spur at that time. >26<

While the Swensons busied themselves with land sales and town building along the S&NW, railroad matters developed elsewhere in the area. The Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad purchased the Texas Central in June of 1910, but plans to extend beyond Rotan never matured. The Kansas City, Mexico and Orient Railway of Texas opened between Sweetwater and Benjamin in 1907. This company's intent was to connect the Midwest with the Gulf of California. Where the rails crossed the old Santa Fe survey, the town of Hamlin was founded. The Texas Central also came to Hamlin. >27<

The Santa Fe extended from Plainview to Lubbock and Lamesa in 1910 and late the following year opened the line through Post City and Sweetwater to the Gulf, Colorado and Santa Fe's line at Coleman. Another line from Lubbock touched the Santa Fe's transcontinental line at Texico in 1914. >28<

The Matador Ranch finally got its east-west railroad. The Quanah, Acme and Pacific Railway, which was part of the St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco) System, halted at McBain in 1913 within sight of the cliffs of the Caprock. >29<

Morgan Jones' independent Abilene and Southern Railway reached Ballinger in 1909. A proposed extension to San Angelo met rabid opposition from the Santa Fe, which may have had a grudge from Jones' role in stealing the Abilene route. Everywhere Jones turned an eye, the Santa Fe quickly built a line: Paint Rock, Eden, Brady, and Sterling City. The A&S did not build beyond Ballinger. >30<

More important to the Spur line was the Crosbyton-Southplains Railroad. The C. B. Livestock Company pushed this line to completion between Lubbock and Crosbyton in 1911. Taken alone, the constructed line would seem a branch for the Santa Fe. However, plans called for a line from Spur to Crosbyton, then up to Plainview before terminating in Tucumcari, New Mexico. The C-SP would seem to have been planned as an extension of the S&NW onto the plains. The C-SP's general manager, A. B. Spence, was a former C&S employee and maintained close relations with the C&S. >31<

However, the Santa Fe purchased the C-SP on August 1, 1915. Shortly, Santa Fe surveyors were working eastward from Crosbyton to Seymour, the terminus of the Gulf, Texas and Western Railway. The Santa Fe hoped to purchase the GT&W and the Weatherford, Mineral Wells and Northwestern Railway to form a direct route between Fort Worth and Lubbock. >32<

Spence, still at Crosbyton, wrote to the Fort Worth and Denver City affiliate of the C&S. "We would much prefer the FW&DC interests in this country," he wrote, "than to be completely surrounded by the Santa Fe, which looks very likely just now if something isn't done to head them off." >33<

C&S officials felt that the railroad had "stood still and allowed a good deal of valuable territory to be taken up by other lines." Chief among the lost territory was Plainview, which had grown into the area's largest city. The C&S began examining the possibility of serving the plains. Spence offered the C-SP's 1% Caprock survey southeast of Crosbyton. The C&S, however, preferred its own 0.6% line in Crawfish Canyon. >34<

The C&S postponed its construction due to a weak economy that caused the financial failure of two C&S properties. The coming World War further dampened railroad construction activity. The only line built at this time was the Santa Fe's Lubbock to Seagraves line that opened in 1918. >35<

Railroad construction looked more promising by 1923. In June of that year, C&S officials toured the plains between Texico and Spur. They deturmined that three areas needed more rail service: The land east of the Santa Fe's Canyon-Lubbock line; the Canyon-Texico-Lubbock triangle, which was bound by Santa Fe lines; and the Texico-Lubbock-Seagraves triangle, which was marked by Santa Fe lines on two sides but open to the west. It was decided that the second area was the most promising and that the third could wait until the others were developed. >36<

Then the officials toured a line from Stamford to Fort Worth. The Burlington's existing route between these places went far afield through Wichita Falls, so a 175-mile direct line was under consideration. >37<

However, concerns were voiced that the new route would drain existing traffic from the WV. Also, the loss of business passing through Wichita Falls might alienate citizens of that town. With these and other concerns in mind, the eastern extension was not actively pursued. >38<

Plans for the line through Crawfish Canyon progressed rapidly. Estimates called for 76 miles from Spur to Plainview and 30 more to Hart. Two branches were to split away at Cone: An eight mile line to Ralls and a fifty to Silverton. >39<

The C&S was not alone in planning a line on the plains. In July the Texas, Panhandle and Gulf Railroad petitioned the Interstate Commerce Commission for permission to construct between Fort Worth and Tucumcari via Tulia. At a preliminary hearing in Austin that fall, several Burlington officials, including president Hale Holden, testified against building the TP&G. Holden's testimony revealed C&S plans to build onto the Llano Estacado. Within days, C&S offices were flooded with approving letters from plains citizens. >40<

The Santa Fe was not pleased to learn about the C&S plans. In January of 1924, the Santa Fe made an offer to the citizens of Plainview. If they would obtain right of ways to Silverton and Olton and arrange for cash bonuses, the Santa Fe would lay tracks to those places. However, Plainview was hoping for a Burlington line instead of more of the same old railroad and did not cooperate. Repeated visits by Santa Fe officials failed to bring support. But as months passed with no word from the Burlington, citizens' letters to the C&S began to contain some shameless begging. "The people of Plainview want to know if they can help build the Burlington to Spur or Childress or anywhere else so it is the Burlington," wrote one. "They are willing to do anything on earth to forward the construction of this road." Not all begged, however. "Our people have not catered to strange rail road promotors and have refused to encourage a thing or so that might have given us a trunk line," wrote Massie, "but our people are growing restless and they may soon encourage what they have not encouraged." >41<

The Santa Fe increased the pressure by surveying to Silverton from Tulia in the blatant light of publicity. In contrast to the usually furtive nature of such things, information was given to newspapers and visitors were permitted to read company correspondence. Playing the same game, the Burlington announced that it had surveyed from Childress to the plains. >42<

The Burlington's new route, with the main line connection later changed from Childress to Estelline, had been considered since early 1924 as a short alternative to the Spur route, but it was not the only one. The Burlington considered buying the Quanah, Acme and Pacific Railway, which ran westward from the FW&DC main line almost to the Caprock. Once on the plains, the Burlington's Estelline and Quanah routes both were projected to Hart, Silverton, and Lubbock using information that had originally been gathered for the Spur route. In October, the Burlington decided to purchase the QA&P. >43<

The QA&P purchase, however, was endangered in February of 1925 when the Frisco asked too high a price for the property. Hale Holden decided to run a bluff. "We had better proceed with our own plans without delay," he ordered, "and when our application covering the Estelline route is on file and therefore public, I will be in a position to see <the Frisco> and say that if we can trade for the Quanah line, we will be willing to consider that as an alternative." >44<

THe Estelline project was laid before the ICC February twentieth and it was promptly returned to the railroad. The application had been too hurriedly assembled. The ICC requested maps and the names of towns to be served. It was also desired for the company actually building the line to submit the proposal. The Burlington obtained a charter for the Fort Worth and Denver South Plains Railway on March 5, 1925, which submitted a revised application on the eleventh of April. The new aplication covered a line from Estelline to Plainview and Dimmitt with branches to Silverton and Lubbock. >45<

Santa Fe affiliates had not been idle during this period. In February the South Plains and Santa Fe Railway applied to construct a line west of Lubbock to the state line. Permission came quickly and the line opened to Bledsoe in December. The Pecos and Northern Texas Railway proposed in April to build the Silverton and Dimmitt lines from Plainview. >46<

In June, the Frisco applied to extend the QA&P to Floydada. That ended the Burlington's efforts to purchase the property. A legal fray erupted that was not decided until November 8, 1926, when the ICC granted approval to the projects of the FW&DSP and the QA&P. >47<

The November 20, 1928, opening of the FW&DSP lines on the plains marked the end of serious thoughts of making the branch to Spur into a through line. Possibly the last mention of the project came in August of 1929 when Santa Fe surveyor J. W. Stewart, who had been a member of Key's party in 1904, came to Spur. Stewart visited Clifford B. Jones, manager of Swenson properties in the area and a director of the Stamford and Northwestern. Stewart was looking for a route through the Croton breaks for use in a planned line to Fort Worth. Jones asked if the Santa Fe would be interested in using the S&NW. Stewart "said that their ideas would not comprehend such a plan and that they thought they should work out something independent of that possibility." No more was done. >48<

Back in 1904, during the Santa Fe's first survey, which predated the proliferation of hard-surface roads and automobiles, J. V. Key had expressed the opinion that he "could not recommend a <rail> road through Dickens and Stonewall <Counties> if it depended on local traffic for its revenues." Despite the Burlington's efforts, the branch to Spur had to depend on local traffic. Service was discontinued on April 28, 1967. Many of the other local lines mentioned in this story have also seen their last trains, including the hard-won Burlington line to the Llano Estacado. In recent years, Burlington service to Plainview and Lubbock has been over Santa Fe rails. The Santa Fe's through line, however, remains healthy. The ultimate irony came on September 22, 1995, when the Santa Fe merged with the corporate descendant of the Burlington. Their rivalry shaped West Texas, but now they are one. >49<

>1< James Dun to E. P. Ripley, September 16, 1904.

>2< Poor's Manual of the Railroads, 1905, pp. 522, 524.

>3< S. M. Swenson & Sons to E. D. Kenna, November 14, 1904.

>4< F. W. Mudge to J. V. Key, December 13, 1904.

James Dun to E. D. Kenna, December 23, 1904.

>5< James Dun to E. P. Ripley, January 3, 1905.

E. D. Kenna to E. P. Ripley, April 21, 1905.

>6< James Dun to F. Meredith Jones, April 23, 1905.

F. Meredith Jones to James Dun, June 8, 1905

James Dun to E. P. Ripley, June 15, 1905.

>7< Decisions of the Interstate Commerce Commission of the United States (Valuation Reports), May 1927, Vol. 127, p. 827.

>8< Vernon Gladden Spence, Colonel Morgan Jones: Grand Old Man of Texas Railroading, University of Oklahoma Press: Norman, 1971. p. 157. (Hereinafter: Spence, Colonel Jones.)

>9< Spence, Colonel Jones. pp. 157-160.

>10< Spence, Colonel Jones. pp. 161, 163, 165.

>11< Richard C. Overton, Burlington Route: A History of the Burlington Lines, University of Nebraska Press: Lincoln and London, 1965. pp. XXVII, 273.

>12< James Dun to E. P. Ripley, July 10, 1906: July 28, 1906.

>13< J. B. Furrey to W. B. Storey Jr., September 25, 1906.

E. P. Ripley to W. B. Storey Jr., September 6, 1906.

>14< Bob Burton, "'I Wish We Were Not Called Upon to Act:' The Early Growth of the Santa Fe Railway on the South Plains," West Texas Historical Association Year Book, 1987, Vol. LXIII, pp. 153-170.

Bob Burton, "Crossties and Grapenuts," The Santa Fe Route, The Santa Fe Railway Historical Society, Inc., Vol. V, No. 1. pp. 4-12.

Carl Harper, "Building the Santa Fe Railroad Through the South Plains," West Texas Historical Association Year Book, 1935, Vol. XI, pp. 81-82. (Hereinafter: Harper, "Building Santa Fe.")

W. B. Storey Jr. to F. Meredith Jones, October 6, 1906; November 2, 1906.

F. Meredith Jones to W. B. Storey Jr., December 4, 1906; February 15, 1907.

>15< Frank Trumbull to Morgan Jones, May 23, 1906.

>16< W. C. Holden, The Espuela Land and Cattle Company: A Study of a Foreign-Owned Ranch in Texas, Texas State Historical Association, Austin, 1970. p. 243.

C&S Memo, May 20, 1907.

>17< Frank Trumbull to D. B. Keeler, June 15, 1907.

>18< W. B. Storey Jr. to E. P. Ripley, June 13, 1907.

V. V. Masterson, The Katy Railroad and the Last Frontier, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1952, p. 279.

>19< W. E. Bogart to L. M. Buie, July 1, 1907; July 5, 1907; July 11, 1907; July 22,1907.

L. M. Buie to D. B. Keeler, September 16, 1907.

>20< D. B. Keeler to L. M. Buie, September 23, 1907.

L. M. Buie to D. B. Keeler, September 27, 1907; September 30, 1907.

D. B. Keeler to Allison Mayfield, May 5, 1915.

E. P. Swenson to L. M. Buie, December 10, 1907.

>21< D. B. Keeler to Allison Mayfield, May 5, 1915.

>22< Exact details of the proposal have not been located, but it is mentioned elsewhere.

W B. Storey Jr. to C. W. Post, April 1, 1909.

D. B. Keeler to H. W. Cowan, January 29, 1909.

>23< D. B. Keeler to H. W. Cowan, January 29, 1909.

Murdo MacKenzie to Alexander MacKay, January 13, 1909; February 19, 1909.

>24< W. B. Storey Jr. to E. P. Ripley, January 12, 1909.

>25< W. B. Storey Jr. to E. P. Ripley, January 12, 1909.

"The Pecos and Northern Texas Railway Company: Line from Plainview to Floydada, 26.75 Miles," Santa Fe Splinters, Vol.31, pp. 185-186.

Randall County News, January 8, 1909.

Harper, "Building Santa Fe." p. 77.

>26< D. B. Keeler to Allison Mayfield, May 5, 1915.

Crosbyton Review, February 11, 1909; February 25, 1909; February 27, 1909; June 24, 1909.

>27< V. V. Masterson, The Katy Railroad and the Last Frontier, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1952, p. 279.

James Marshall, Santa Fe: The Railroad That Built An Empire, Random House, New York, 1945. pp. 296-298, 440-441.

>28< Harper, "Building Santa Fe." pp. 73-92.

>29< W. M. Pearce, The Matador Land and Cattle Company, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1964. pp. 132-139.

>30< Spence, Colonel Jones. pp. 185-190.

>31< Crosbyton Review, July 20, 1911; September 21, 1911; January 18, 1912.

Carl Harper, Movements Towards Railroad Building on the South Plains of Texas: 1907-1914, M. A. Thesis, Texas Technological College, 1935. pp. 169-170.

Bob Burton, "The South Plains and Santa Fe Railway," Santa Fe Modeler, Santa Fe Modelers Organization, March/April 1985. p. 21.

>32< A. B. Spence to W. G. Sterley, April 17, 1917.

>33< A. B. Spence to W. G. Sterley, April 17, 1917.

>34< A. B. Spence to W. G. Sterley, April 17, 1917.

D. B. Keeler to A. D. Parker, July 14, 1915.

D. B. Keeler to Hale Holden, February 28, 1918.

>35< Bob Burton, "The South Plains and Santa Fe Railway," Santa Fe Modeler, Santa Fe Modelers Organization, March/April 1985. pp. 22-23.

Richard C. Overton, Burlington Route: A History of the Burlington Lines, University of Nebraska Press: Lincoln and London, 1965. pp. XXVII, 273. p. 448.

>36< Memorandum of Examination from Texico to Spur, June 1923.

>37< Memorandum of Trip and Examination of Territory Between Stamford and Fort Worth, made on June 27th and 28th.

>38< Memorandum of Trip and Examination of Territory Between Stamford and Fort Worth, made on June 27th and 28th.

W. T. Andrews to F. E. Clarity, September 5, 1923.

>39< Colorado & Southern estimates, August 30, 1923.

>40< Dallas News, November 28, 1923; November 30, 1923.

A. B. Spence to F. E. Clarity, November 29, 1923.

F. E. Clarity to Hale Holden, December 17, 1923.

>41< F. E. Clarity to Hale Holden, January 21, 1924; May 6, 1924.

L. S. Kinder to J. H. Barwise Jr., September 24, 1924: November 17, 1924.

W. M. Massie to F. E. Clarity, June 9, 1924.

>42< Fort Worth Star-Telegram, June 8, 1924: June 19, 1924.

F. E. Clarity to Hale Holden, June 20, 1924.

>43< F. E. Clarity to H. R. Safford, June 6, 1924.

W. G. Sterley to F. E. Clarity, October 15, 1924.

>44< Hale Holden to F. E. Clarity, February 17, 1925.

>45< F. E. Clarity to Hale Holden, February 20, 1925: February 25, 1925.

>46< "Construction of Lines by Fort Worth & Denver South Plains Ry. Co.," Decisions of the Interstate Commerce Commission of the United States, Vol.117, pp. 233-280.

>47< "Construction of Lines by Fort Worth & Denver South Plains Ry. Co.," Decisions of the Interstate Commerce Commission of the United States, Vol.117, pp. 233-280.

>48< Memo Outline of History of Fort Worth and Denver City Railway Company.

Clifford B. Jones to F. E. Clarity, August 29, 1929.

>49< J. V. Key to James Dun, September 2, 1904.

F. Hol Wagner Jr., "The Colorado Road:" History, Motive Power, & Equipment of the Colorado and Southern and Fort Worth and Denver Railways, The Intermountain Chapter National Railway Historical Society, Inc., Denver, 1970. p. 194.

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